PREDICTIONS OF AN INFINITE UNIVERSE

If one can fulfil the following requirements, then the case for tired light and an infinite universe based on loss of momentum of the photon and standard physics gains impetus, and the case for the finite, expanding universe based on Doppler red shifting and supported by esoteric science and the Big Bang is on shaky ground.

1. The proton must not decay.

Big Bang theorists have been intent on showing that the proton does decay, which would support a finite state. However after 20 years of experimentation, such as those at the Super-Kamiokande water Cherenkov radiation detector in Japan, they have failed to show a single convincing event to support their theories. They now postulate a minimum proton half-life of at least 1033 years (a billion, trillion, trillion years) - unless, of course protons do not actually decay at all and the universe is infinite!

2. Black holes must not be permanent.

Explosion of black holes, a fate which has already been postulated, could lead to the solution of a many problems, all within standard physics. It could go like this: hydrogen fuses to helium and through the smaller elements to iron, the tightest bound nucleus, where fusion stops. When the remaining small element fuel is exhausted the temperature keeping the star from collapsing falls and collapse under gravity starts. Pressures increase until fusion starts again overcoming atomic degeneracy, the force that keeps atoms apart. At this stage fusion is endothermic and the collapse becomes sudden with the shedding of photons and neutrinos and an increase of density to 1015 the density of the nucleus. A neutron mass is formed – the dwarfs, the neutron star and the black hole, if the star were large enough. This sudden collapse is seen as a supernova with enormous radiation, neutrinos, gamma rays and an afterglow.

SuperNova 1994D (Image credit NASA)
SuperNova 1994D (Image credit NASA)

Larger stars collapse more violently and completely with greater cooling resulting in the neutron mass shrinking within its event horizon to become a black hole.

Further compression under gravity is against nucleon degeneracy pressure, the force that keeps nuclear components apart, a vastly greater force, but capable of compression by a factor of 10 to 100 to allow the mass to become smaller than its event horizon, the mathematical sphere around a black hole. Here the force of gravity of the neutron mass produces an escape velocity greater than the speed of light, whereupon radiation of photons and neutrinos ceases.

Neutron (nucleon) degeneracy pressure must be assumed to be able to withstand compression against gravity to complete oblivion in a singularity a fate given the black hole by Big Bang theorists which is not intuitive. Our knowledge of nuclear forces is incomplete at these extreme densities, but by our definition of a black hole nothing can escape the event horizon even photons and neutrinos. By chance particles falling into the hole result in heating of the neutron mass and expansion. This process takes a long time but there is no limit in an infinite universe.

But in addition to radiant energy there would also be accretion by infalling matter. Assuming the forces of acceleration at the event horizon are the same as the forces of gravity stopping escape, infalling matter has a kinetic energy of 1/2mv2 which starts to look like mc2. This would make the age of the black hole very much shorter. The final trigger of radiation accretion would lead to explosion showering space with neutron masses of all sizes, mostly single neutrons which would scatter, before decay within minutes, to protons, electrons and antineutrinos.

Could this be an exploding black hole? (Image credit NASA)
Could this be an exploding black hole? (Image credit NASA)

Nucleosynthesis the process by which elements are formed, now assumed to be by either fusion in ageing stars, or in the Big Bang could have an alternative pathway.

The problems of synthesis by fusion for such elements as helium, lithium and carbon might be better solved by dispersion of protons and electrons of a fragmenting neutron mass - this could be based on more realistic ideas than those of a black hole heading towards a singularity. Element abundance of helium in hydrogen clouds observed to be 20-25% could be expected, due to the binding energy per nucleon being the highest in helium, and tapering off as nuclear mass increases. There would be no need to assume high helium abundance can only be due to their origin in the Big Bang.

The mismatch of lithium isotopes abundances Li6 and Li7 actually found, and that predicted by Big Bang nucleosynthesis, is a serious concern for Big Bang theorists. It is the linchpin of their theory and extremely complex and difficult mathematics have been tried to fix it without much success. Adding more dimensions to their mathematics to account for the discrepancies also defeats their own arguments.

3. Elements formed from fusion of hydrogen must recycle to hydrogen.

Black holes would be better considered as part of the life cycle of a hydrogen cloud, and its entrapped larger elements, rather than as the final death in the life of a star its usual interpretation.

Explosion of a black hole would shower the sky with neutron masses of all sizes which would fragment in an expanding and cooling state to give a spectrum of elements from hydrogen to uranium of a pattern different from that produced in fusion step by step in a heating state. It is likely that the most abundant elements formed would be hydrogen and helium which would explain galactic hydrogen clouds, formed by dispersion of protons and electrons and alpha particles by galactic electromagnetic forces.

If a hydrogen to helium and larger elements back to hydrogen pathway were confirmed one of the main stays of the Big Bang Theory would be gone. Such a pathway could be through gravity and the black hole and all within standard physics.

Recently scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics (MPA) have calculated that merging neutron stars would explode scattering neutron masses to give the same result. Two neutron stars, which would be easier to follow along than a black hole, may well make an equivalent to a black hole in a critical state prior to explosion. It does mention that the following process is a physical one. But if so, such an explosion might well be relatively quiet affair involving only release of compression not nuclear disruption. Perhaps MPA will define element abundance resulting from fragmentation of an exploding black hole; this could prove an infinite cosmology. It does not give a result for extending the research towards reproduction of hydrogen as in hydrogen clouds still presumed by the Big Bang theorists to be remnants of the Big Bang.

4. Entropy must be stable overall.

This hypothesis, of reformation of hydrogen by the power of gravity in forming a black hole and release of the compressed neutron mass by capture of energy resulting in expansion through its event horizon, is very tempting. The whole process is driven by gravity in a mechanical way without the use of matter as a fuel. The sourcing of energy for the luminous universe is reversible.

The reformation of hydrogen by the power of gravity is critical to the infinite universe theory. Hydrogen clouds condense and by fusion through the elements in the stars to a neutron mass and black hole and then, like drawing a bow, recapturing radiant energy to expand outside its event horizon then scattering neutrons which by chance decay to protons and electrons in a few minutes to repeat the process. It is not critical to the finite cosmology and would only cast doubt to a Big Bang theorist. No matter is consumed inviting all to think of a regenerating infinite cosmology.

5. The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) would no longer be a relic of the Big Bang.

It can take up its proper place as the radiation of cold matter filling the void left when the CMB, on discovery in 1965 was usurped, having been predicted by Gamow a Big Bang enthusiast, to fulfil a postulation that the moment of the creation was incredibly hot and dense (in order to account for nucleosynthesis).

The CMB is isotropic and not red shifted, any more than it is blue shifted. It is by far the densest band of electromagnetic radiation spectrum and is in the form of black body radiation and fits the expected image of the cold matter of the universe better than the fabricated behaviour of the Big Bang.

Cold matter is not dark and not mysterious, it radiates at a wavelength of 2 mm the temperature of starlight at around 3 degrees Kelvin, It is kept warm by starlight estimated at 3 degrees in 1926 by Eddington. Cold mass is warmed by the CMB and by starlight. There is no dark matter, no dark energy, one of the key unsolved problems of the Big Bang Theory.

6. The theory should fit observations.

Red shift versus apparent magnitude, galaxy number counts, surface brightness and angular size are all better described in an infinite stable setting (see Crawford 1999).

Expansion of space at unreal velocities is counterintuitive.

The Large Hadron Collider has not produced any convincing event in its first year to help with the Big bag theory and might not do so. Such a negative result can be taken as a positive result for an infinite universe.

Most important is the cold matter issue which has up to now been known as the dark matter issue - the CMB has a new role as the cold matter image. It is not a very good image as it has become mixed with red shifted images of distant higher energy photons. The cold matter image includes black and brown dwarfs, sequestrated gas giants which are largely metallic hydrogen, helium, frozen methane and other gases and water as big as Jupiter, and rocks including sequestrated smaller planets and asteroids, then right down to dust and most of all large amounts of hydrogen and helium gasses in vast clouds. An assumption of this 'cold family' would make research into galaxy evolution easier.

Hydrogen, helium abundance could be more logically explained which would completely negate the need for the Big Bang to account for the missing information.

Lower energy protons which may fill intergalactic space as well may help in explaining tired light red shifting.

An exploding black hole may be a quiet affair; scattering of released neutrons involves only mechanical separation; subsequent decay of the neutron would shed neutrinos but these abound everywhere. Only one or two such explosions per galaxy per century could be expected and the event which produced the black hole may be a million years away, but a small time in an infinite universe.

Lithium isotope abundance might be expected to be different if their source was fragmentation of the scattered neutron mass of a black hole; Li6 and Li7 abundance has been a serious problem for Big Bang theorists.

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

CMS Detector at the CEAN LHC. Image credit Wikipedia
CMS Detector
at the CEAN LHC.
Image credit Wikipedia

The world largest particle accelerator was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 and has cost in excess of US$6.4 billion. It is 27 kilometers in circumference and is built underground to shield it from natural radiation. The LHC is used to create conditions just like after the supposed 'Big Bang'. Among other experiments, the LHC is being used to search for the elusive 'Higgs Boson' the so called 'God Particle', and particles that could make up dark matter. The LHC has essentially been made to prove the Big Bang Theory and the very basis of current scientific theory.

Despite the billions of dollars and years of experimentation with the LHC (or any other collider) there has not been a single Higgs Boson particle observed. In the words of Harvard research scholar Shahriar Afshar failure to find the particle will "bring current scientific theory tumbling down like a house of cards with nothing to replace it" (Alleyne 2009). Are we at this stage now? Is it time to at least consider alternatives to current scientific thinking?