INFINITE NON-EXPANDING UNIVERSEThere are possible alternatives to the Big Bang Theory that should be discussed and thought about.big bang agnostic cosmology
The realistic alternative to the Big Bang Theory
By Geoffrey Wynne-Jones
Despite the Big Bang Theory's popularity, there are those who doubt that our universe originated from nothing, at a single point in time, in a single 'Big Bang'. Alternative theories can be found, including those where the universe is held to be infinite. The theory presented here differs from these in that it offers a novel and viable explanation to the process of regeneration involving black holes, and an entropy stable, non-expanding, infinite universe.
Key points about the theory:
- The universe is infinite and cannot expand.
- There is no supernatural beginning to the universe.
- Time is continuous and space infinite.
- The source of all energy is gravity not expendable fuel.
- The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is radiation of cold matter and the temperature of starlight at 3 degrees K.
- The causes of loss of momentum of the photon are multiple.
- Balanced gravity is not zero gravity.
- Fragmentation of a neutron mass reforms hydrogen.
- The proton must not decay.
- Black holes must have a finite life.
- Black holes are part of the lifecycle of a hydrogen mass.
- A pathway for the recycling of elements formed by fusion of hydrogen back to hydrogen must be possible.
- Entropy must be stable overall.
Cyclical Process Of An Infinite Non-Expanding Universe
The cycle begins when hydrogen and helium clouds, together with entrapped cold larger elements, condense under gravity and heat up to form stars. These 'burn' by fusion to helium and produce a heat of millions of degrees at the centre. Photons move to the surface and become starlight.
Fusion continues for billions of years through carbon, oxygen, silicon, and calcium to iron where fusion stops. When all the smaller elements are consumed, temperatures drop and contraction under gravity forms a neutron mass with a nucleus density of 1015. Further compression under gravity may contract the mass to lie within its event horizon and form a black hole, which cannot radiate.
But the black hole collects photons and neutrinos and slowly heats up to be bigger than its event horizon whereupon it explodes, showering space with neutrons which decay in minutes to protons, electrons and anti-neutrinos. These fuse to form elements, mainly hydrogen and helium, but also all the other elements, in an abundancy distribution - and another crop of stars, all from the power of gravity.
Hydrogen clouds then condense once again under gravity, and the cycle begins again.